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NBA Draft First Round Mock 2.0 (FINAL) with explanations
Hey everyone. I post my first and only other mock here the other day, and with how crazy the NBA is, I feel an update is necessary before the draft tonight. All changes are as of 11:45 EST on June 20th, 2019. Please give it a read and leave feedback in the comments! Also, most of the picks are still the same, so don't crucify me over that.
!! = new team drafting or new player picked
(-) = player moved down
(+) = player moved up
2019 NBA Draft First Round Mock v2 (FINAL)
1. New Orleans – Zion Williamson (Duke)
This one is fairly easy to justify in any case. Zion has a ton of potential on top of the fact that he was far and away the most dominant player in college basketball last year. On top of this, he’s shown that he’s a capable defender who should certainly improve at the NBA level. Definitely has his flaws with shooting and his reliance upon the same post moves, but you simply cannot pass up a talent like Zion with this pick.
2. Memphis – Ja Morant (Murray State)
Another fairly easy pick to make here with Morant going to the Grizzlies. Mike Conley is officially gone, and the Ja Morant-led Grizzlies era is upon us. A phenomenal passer and scorer, just needs to improve decision making in some cases and fix his jump shot. His energy is off the charts and his speed should translate smoothly to the NBA. Other than that, the Grizzlies should and will end up getting exactly what they expect when they draft Morant.
3. New York – RJ Barrett (Duke)
Simply put, Barrett is the third best player in what has been dubbed a three-player draft. People will look to his inefficiency at Duke as a warning sign, but I’d still take Barrett before anyone not named Williamson or Morant. The Knicks need the best player available, and Barrett was the number one prospect for this draft class before Zion took the world by storm. Having to play in a system with two other potential top 10 picks certainly didn’t help either, and Barrett still managed to set the ACC freshman scoring record. Barrett has all the tools and the work ethic to be great at the next level, and by joining the Knicks, he’ll be provided the environment to instantly become a star for a team lacking in that department.
!! 4. Minnesota (from New Orleans via Lakers) – Darius Garland (+2)
(New Orleans sends the 4th pick to Minnesota in exchange for the 11th pick and Robert Covington)
First difference from my original mock. This exact trade has been gaining some traction in the rumor mill, so let’s go with it. New Orleans trades down and can still get a player they need (a big, for example), and Minnesota gets the player they want in Garland. Garland is a bit of a question mark in regard to his ability to play at this level – he only played a handful of games in college before his season ending meniscus injury – but if his skills from those games and high school can translate, he’ll fit perfectly on the Bulls. Garland is a reliable shooting option and his passing skills are great. Paired next to an offensive star in
!! 5. Atlanta (from Cleveland) – Jarrett Culver (Texas Tech) (-1)
(Cleveland sends 5th pick to Atlanta in exchange for the 8th pick, 17th pick, and 35th pick)
This is where things get a bit interesting. The Hawks have been very interested in acquiring Culver’s services, and since the Pelicans wouldn’t trade out in this scenario, this potential trade between Cleveland and Atlanta could happen here. Culver is a strong defensive wing that will take some heat off of Trae Young while maintaining floor spacing for the shooters on the Hawks like Young and Kevin Huerter. Culver can also fill a void as a tenacious rebounder for his position. While Culver isn’t an exceptional shooter, Young and Huerter will provide shooting from the outside so Culver isn’t dependent on a three point shot he doesn’t have in his bag – yet. Meanwhile, Cleveland gains more draft capital as their rebuilding project gets underway.
!! 6. Phoenix – Coby White (North Carolina) (+1)
Phoenix needs a PG, and the question for the past month or so is which one they will end up with in this draft. I originally had Garland here, but word on the street is they prefer White substantially. White always looks like he’s playing at full speed, which is why he excelled in the fast-paced UNC offense. His three-point stroke was smooth and quick in college, and he can beat defenders to the hoop with his speed. His speed also makes him a pest on defense, which is a plus for a smaller guard like White. This tough thing with White is his size. While he can beat defenders off the dribble, he’ll have trouble handling the longer and stronger bodies in the NBA, and his low shot release will be suspect to longer defenders, but if his speed can translate, White should be a great pick up for the Suns.
!! 7. Chicago – De’Andre Hunter (-2)
De’Andre Hunter has the potential to go anywhere from 4th to 8th, but in this scenario Chicago misses out on the three point guards they desire in this draft and take BPA instead. Chicago is much closer to succeeding than one would like to admit, and a trade here for Lonzo Ball potentially could bring them even closer, but Hunter is the safe pick here. Hunter provides spacing in this offense with his three point shooting ability, and his defense will mesh perfectly with a team already made up of promising or established defenders. Sometimes he’s a bit slow and has trouble getting to the hoop, but solid 3 and D players will always be welcome in today’s NBA, and Chicago needs solid players to keep in their rotation.
!! 8. Cleveland (from Atlanta) – Cam Reddish (Duke)
(Cleveland sends 5th pick to Atlanta in exchange for the 8th pick, 17th pick, and 35th pick)
Cleveland is rumored to be high on Reddish, and even if they trade down to 8th they should be able to grab him due to the team needs of Chicago and Phoenix. Reddish is another question mark in this draft with how he underperformed at Duke, but it’s tough to outshine two of the three best players in the draft. Reddish is long, but he can create his own shot off the dribble. He moves well without the ball and with proper the shooting mechanic he already has, he’ll eventually become a great shooter if everything goes well. His length also makes him an apt defender who can play the 1 through 4. While Reddish can create his own shots, he has trouble finishing and sometimes forces too many, though that may be a product of wanting to score after watching Zion and Barrett dominate. If Reddish can turn his FGAs in FGMs with the form he already has while continuing to improve on defense, Reddish should remain a talent in the NBA for years to come.
9. Washington – Jaxson Hayes (Texas)
The Wizards project to be in tough shape for the next few years, so drafting a large boom prospect like Hayes makes a lot of sense. The Wizards need rim protection, and that’s exactly what Hayes offers. Hayes averaged 17.1 point, 8.6 rebounds, and 2.2 blocks per 40, proving that he can excel under the basket on both sides of the floor, but that’s about it. He can’t pass and didn’t attempt a single three pointer this past season for Texas. Like most young big men, he falls for fakes in the paint and doesn’t defend the pick and roll well, and his somewhat slender frame makes it tough to set screens and rebound over stronger and bigger bodies. Hayes is raw, but his potential as a rim protector and post scorer can’t be overlooked – if he develops well, he should exceed expectations for the Wizards.
10. Atlanta (from Dallas) – Sekou Doumbouya (+1)
The Hawks are really in a great position moving forward, so taking a bit of a risk on a high reward player could make some sense here rather than taking someone with a high floor. Sekou Doumbouya is that player with loads of untapped potential at his disposal. Doumbouya has length and scoring ability to make him a legit threat immediately in the NBA, and his youth gives Atlanta plenty of time to let him develop. While Doumbouya can shoot and score well, and has the length to defend all 5 positions, his low basketball IQ is certainly an issue. Proper development in the best league in the world should fix those problems after time, and with Doumbouya only 18 years old, there is plenty of time for the Hawks to fix Doumbouya’s issues and turn him into a great player.
11. New Orleans (from Minnesota) – Bol Bol (-1)
(New Orleans sends the 4th pick to Minnesota in exchange for the 11th pick and Robert Covington)
No matter where Bol is placed in the mock drafts I’ve read, there are always people who vehemently disagree and don’t want him. The Pelicans aren’t competing – yet – but when they are a few years from now, a developed Bol Bol would be incredible. Bol shot 52% from three in his small sample size from college while averaging ridiculous 28.2/12.8/1.3 splits per 40. The main issues with Bol are his motor and his health. Bol is slow due to his abnormal size, and that shows through his defense. Past that, he either looks lost or disinterested on defense most of the time, which for someone who should be able to protect the rim is disheartening. His body also leaves him susceptible to health problems, like the stress fracture that kept him sidelined most of the year. Bol has major upside as a 7’3” shooter with post skills to boot, but his defense and effort must improve for him to excel in the NBA.
12. Charlotte – Brandon Clarke (Gonzaga)
Charlotte has problems everywhere but PG (and if Kemba leaves, that’ll be an issue as well), but the most important problem right now is defense. Clarke was an exceptional defender last year, who apparently had as many blocks as missed shots this past season (shoutout The Ringer). His 16.9/8.6/1.9 splits are also impressive even if he played in the WCC. He’s a perfect small-ball 4 or 5 who will fit well with whatever team who drafts him. Clarke’s biggest issue is that his shooting wasn’t great by any means at Gonzaga, and his post scoring ability will certainly be hindered by the bigger defenders in the NBA. Without a reliable shot from range, Clarke will most likely just be known for his defense if he pans out.
13. Miami – Nassir Little (North Carolina)
The Heat are in a really tricky situation given their cap issues and lack of talent locked up, so the best option here is to take a boom or bust player like Little and hopes he pans out. While Little was relegated to the bench at UNC, he absolutely took advantage of those minutes when he played. He averaged 21.5/10.1/1.4 per 40 and is a strong defender as well with his 7’1” wingspan. Little’s biggest problem is unquestionably his shooting (only 26.9% from three on 52 attempts), and in a league where shooting is as valuable as it has ever been, Little will need a jump shot to succeed in the league. However, Little’s size and potential make him a suitable pick for the Heat, who need a star to lead them once their contracts are eventually off the books. Rui Hachimura could also be a pick, but the Heat don’t need another high floor without as much promise as Little to develop.
14. Boston (from Sacramento via Philadelphia) – Rui Hachimura (Gonzaga)
As a Boston fan, I would love Hachimura to fall here, and I think this is the most realistic scenario in which that happens with Minnesota trading up. Hachimura picked up the game only a few years back and has already shown enormous potential in his time at Gonzaga. His length and frame are similar to Giannis in my opinion (although there is a dramatic talent difference, obviously) and his ability to cut to the basket will fit great on a team that could possibly resign shooters like Terry Rozier and Marcus Morris. Hachimura’s faults lie in his ability to comprehend the game around him – he’s often slow making reads on both offense and defense. He shot well from three at 41.7%, but only took 36 attempts last year, so he’ll certainly need to improve that as well. Hachimura’s uncertainty on the floor and lack of outside shooting will make it tough to adapt to the NBA immediately, but Hachimura’s fairly high floor and physical tools make him a safe pick for the Celtics with boom potential.
!! 15. Detroit – Romeo Langford (Indiana) (+1)
Detroit is going to need a guard, so enter Romeo Langford. At 6’6”, his 6’11” wingspan adds more length to defend a variety of positions, and his scoring ability will be welcome even more if Detroit moves on from Blake Griffin at any point, which seems unlikely although there are some rumors out there. Despite his lackluster numbers from 3 (27.2%) and the field in general (49.1 EFG%), Langford looks like he could score on anyone with the way he attacks the hoop. He can rebound well for his position given his length, and his defense will be top tier if he can keep up with what’s going on at the next level. Detroit fills a team need and possibly gets the best player available with this pick.
!! 16. Orlando – Matisse Thybulle (Washington) (+13)
Over the past few days I’ve gotten a lot higher on Thybulle, and a team like Orlando should be able to slot him in perfectly. Thybulle wasn’t exceptional on the offense end, only averaging 9.1 PPG, but his 3.5 SPG and 2.2 BPG as a guard are amazing. He has a great FT% at 85.1%, which could potentially translate to a jumpshot, and his athleticism could turn him into a great slasher if he can learn to score that way. While Orlando loves its length, Thybulle’s studly defensive ability will make it look like he has a 7’ wingspan. Pair him with fellow Washington guard Markelle Fultz, and Orlando has a backcourt that could wreak havoc is they’re both developed properly.
!! 17. Cleveland (from Atlanta via Brooklyn) – Nickeil Alexander-Walker (Virginia Tech) (+3)
(Cleveland sends 5th pick to Atlanta in exchange for the 8th pick, 17th pick, and 35th pick)
Cleveland still hasn’t moved Kevin Love, and they won’t in this mock either, so the void there is filled for the time being. What hasn’t been touched in Cleveland is the second guard spot next to Collin Sexton. Jordan Clarkson played well, but that was on a tanking team with no success to lineup with those stats, so I’ll slot Nickeil Alexander-Walker here. He has some experience as a sophomore and decent length at 6’5” with a near 6’10” wingspan. His 16.2/4.1/4.0 splits on 54.6 EFG% is great, and he’s an apt defender averaging 1.9 steals a game as well. His shot is a little wonky, which makes it difficult to shoot off the dribble, but his catch and shoot three ball will fit nicely next to a slashing PG like Sexton. Alexander-Walker can pass too, something that Sexton wasn’t known for last year, so he’ll be a welcome addition to Cleveland’s young backcourt.
!! 18. Indiana – Tyler Herro (Kentucky) (-1)
Tyler Herro bumps down one spot in this mock, but the story is still the same. He can catch and shoot, shoot off the dribble, and his record-breaking free throw percentage is a good metric for how he’ll shoot actual jumpers in the NBA. The guy plays with a chip on his shoulder and it shows. What he lacks in length he makes up for with heart. With Bojan Bogdanovic potentially leaving in free agency, Herro will fill the void left by the knockdown shooter.
19. San Antonio – Goga Bitadze (International)
I’d love for Goga Bitadze to fall to Boston at 20, but the Spurs seem like the perfect fit for him. The Georgian center earned the Serbian League MVP this past season after posting 16.9/7.6/2.3 splits while averaging 2.1 blocks per game. He’s only 19 years old, so Pop will have plenty of time to develop him (depending on how long he stays). He’s strong, has a variety of post moves, and can shoot. He’s a capable defender, but his size makes him too slow in some situations. Minus that, Bitadze should be an NBA ready center the second he gets drafted and should make an immediate impact for the Spurs.
!! 20. Boston (from LA Clippers via Memphis) – Ty Jerome (Virginia) (-5)
After missing out on Alexander-Walker (who I originally had slotted here), Boston resorts to one of the next best guards available with Ty Jerome. He’s a smart passer who averaged 5.5 assists per game in the slowest offense in college basketball, nearly shot 40% from three, and was a solid defender as well with 1.5 steals per game. Nearly 6’6”, Jerome can defend, and defend well, several positions, and busts his ass as well. For his height, may struggle finishing inside, which may be an issue on a Celtics team that should open up the paint, but that works both ways as his three point ability will be welcome in the Celtics system. If the Celtics retain both the 20th and 22nd picks, Jerome could certainly be drafted at either spot.
21. Oklahoma City – Nicolas Claxton (Georgia)
I got to watch Claxton live at Alabama this past year, and while I wasn’t overly impressed with how he played, he certainly deserves the recognition he’s been getting recently. While his 13 PPG, 8.6 RPG, and 2.5 BPG are great, his shooting splits of 46.0/28.1/64.1 leave much to be desired. Although he’s fairly lanky, Claxton is an above average ball handler for his size who can also pass well. He’s also an apt defender, and that should only improve as he puts on the weight needed to play in the NBA. If Claxton can bulk up, develop a shot, and continue to develop as a defender, he theoretically can be a great stretch 4 in the league, which is exactly what the Thunder can use right now given their inability to make any free agent signings with their cap situation.
22. Boston – PJ Washington (Kentucky)
I don’t expect Boston to keep all three picks they have, and the 22nd pick seems like the most likely to be traded, but PJ Washington would be a great player to grab this late. A true big who can also shoot well for his size (52.2/42.3/66.3 splits), Washington’s scoring and rebounding would fit the Celtics perfectly, especially now that Al Horford is bound to walk. Washington plays like a guard with his shooting and passing abilities, but his shot selection can be awry at times. He’s somewhat slow and can struggle on defense because of this, but a hardheaded defensive team like the Celtics will be able to fix or hide this weakness.
23. Memphis (via Utah) – Kevin Porter Jr. (USC)
I originally had Memphis acquiring this pick in my first mock draft, so there’s nothing really to change here. Kevin Porter Jr. is a bit of a question mark, but he may be worth a shot for a team that isn’t going to be competing for a few years. Porter Jr. may have been limited in his playing time as USC, but that didn’t stop him from being an offensive stud when provided the opportunity. He may have weird shooting mechanics and his game may appear to be a bit too flashy, but put Porter Jr. next to a facilitator such as Ja Morant, and he should excel. Two ball handlers has worked across the league, and adding a potentially elite scorer in Kevin Porter Jr. next to Ja Morant, along with All Rookie First-Teamer Jaren Jackson Jr., and Memphis could have a powerful young core in the future.
24. Philadelphia – Cameron Johnson (North Carolina)
Philadelphia is expected to remain in win now mode and attempt to resign both Tobias Harris and Jimmy Butler to max deals, which would make it difficult to retain JJ Redick. Cameron Johnson would be a great fit to replace him with his stupendous three point shooting ability (45.7% on 210 attempts). Johnson is 23 years old, making him ideal to play now rather than develop, and his shooting isn’t just limited to the three ball, making him the ideal 5th scorer if the Sixers decide to incorporate him that way. His movement will be questioned, especially with his recent hip surgery, but for a team that is loaded with defense otherwise, a spot up shooter like Johnson should fit right in.
!! 25. Portland – Keldon Johnson (Kentucky) (-7)
Dylan Windler was slotted here originally, and unfortunately I have him completely out of the first round now (you’ll see who took his spot shortly). Keldon Johnson’s defense will certainly be welcome by the Trail Blazers, and his shooting ability is something the Trail Blazers look for in all their players. Johnson isn’t a prolific passer (1.6 assist per game on a skilled Kentucky team) but with 17.6/7.6 per 40 splits, Johnson should be a skilled 3 and D player at worst in the NBA if his shot can translate. Johnson’s greatest weakness is his mobility with and without the ball. His dribbling ability is amateur, and he often can get caught standing around on both ends of the floor. However, with the grit he displayed last year, there is real potential for him to excel at the next level.
26. Cleveland (from Houston) – Mfiondu Kabengele (Florida State)
Tristan Thompson is finally off the books after this season, and the Cavs will want to retool at the position sooner than later. Kabengele could end up being Tristan Thompson with a three point stroke, which the Cavs would gladly take. He’s better offensive rebounder than defensive, and loves to block shots, but he’ll have to adapt to playing with an actual team of NBA talent rather than the Florida State team where he was the center of attention. I have my doubts with Kabengele, but he can certainly become a capable NBA player with his frame and potential.
27. Brooklyn (from Denver) – Grant Williams (Tennessee)
With Kyrie Irving likely coming to Brooklyn, they’re going to be in win now mode, so why not draft a guy who’s won for his whole college career? Grant Williams is a great interior player with post skills to boot. He’s gritty and can fight through contact to score and draw fouls. Williams isn’t a notorious outside shooter, but his free throw percentage was great, which leaves improvement as an intriguing possibility. His defense is also great, so he’s certain to be incorporated in one way or another on a contender.
28. Golden State – Chuma Okeke (Auburn)
Carsen Edwards made too much sense here before Klay Thompson and Kevin Durant got injured, so while Golden State relaxes a bit in the regular season, they should take the time to develop Chuma Okeke as he comes back from his torn ACL. Okeke is a proper three point shooter coming from a run and gun team, so he should find success in the Golden State offense. He’s a great passer as well for his size, which is very important in an offense like Golden State’s where the ball moves rapidly to get the open shot. Okeke won’t be rushed back by any means given the situation in Golden State, so the Warriors would have plenty of time to incorporate a more than capable three point scorer into their already electric offense.
!! 29. San Antonio (from Toronto) – Carsen Edwards (Purdue) (+2)
This is my replacement for Dylan Windler in my second mock. I don’t know how great of a fit Carsen Edwards is for San Antonio, but his talent and the fact that San Antonio needs guard depth give this pick some explanation. Edwards lit up the NCAA Tournament with his scoring ability – namely his three point shooting. He’s a bit small, although his wingspan is decent, and he’s a tireless scorer from anywhere on the court. His EFG% is somewhat weak (49%) and his defense is suspect due to his size. He can pass, but it’s nothing special, which is what the Spurs will need sooner than later. Nonetheless, San Antonio could certainly use a spark plug, which Edwards could certainly be after some time.
!! 30. Detriot (from Milwaukee) – Darius Bazley (High School) (+1)
This pick was traded late last night, and to be completely honest I really don’t know where this pick could go, so I’ll take the suddenly coveted Darius Bazley. Bazley skipped out on college and the G-League this past year to prepare on his own for the draft, and his skillset is something most every NBA team could use. He’s ultra fluid, strong, and and score well. His shot selection is questionable, but he’s young, so he has time to figure that out. Overall, Detroit should take whoever they feel is BPA here, and I’d go with Darius Bazley.
Just missed the cut: Dylan Windler, Talen Horton-Tucker, Terence Davis, Bruno Fernando, and KZ Okpala
update: formatting mistakes again. enjoy!
Secrets By The Thousands
October, 1946 Page 329SECRETS BY THE THOUSANDS
C. Lester Walker
Someone wrote to Wright Field recently, saying he understood this country had got together quite a collection of enemy war secrets, that many were now on public sale, and could he, please, be sent everything on German jet engines. The Air Documents Division of the Army Air Forces answered.:
Sorry – but that would be fifty tons.
Moreover, that fifty tons was just a small portion of what is today undoubtedly the biggest collection of captured enemy war secrets ever assembled. If you always thought of war secrets – as who hasn't? – as coming in sixes and sevens, as a few items of information readily handed on to the properly interested authorities, it may interest you to learn that the war secrets in this collection run into the thousands, that the mass of documents is mountainous, and that there was never before been anything quite comparable to it.
The collection is today chiefly in three places: Wright Field (Ohio), the Library of Congress, and the Department of Commerce. Wright Field is working from a documents "mother lode" of fifteen hundred tons. In Washington, the Office of Technical Services (which has absorbed the Office of the Publication Board, the government agency originally set up to handle the collection) reports that tens of thousands of tons of material are involved. It is estimated that over a million separate items must be handled, and that they, very likely, practically all the scientific, industrial and military secrets of Nazi Germany.
One Washington official has called it "the greatest single source of this type of material in the world, the first orderly exploitation of an entire country's brain-power."
How the collection came to be goes back, for beginnings, to one day in 1944 when the Allied Combined Chiefs of Staff set in motion a colossal search for war secrets in occupied German territory. They created a group of military-civilian teams, termed the Joint Intelligence Objectives Committee, which was to follow the invading armies into Germany and uncover all her military, scientific, and industrial secrets for early use against Japan. These teams worked against tine to get the most vital information be: ore it was. destroyed, and in getting it performed prodigies of ingenuity and tenacity.
At an optical company at Wetzlav, near Frankfurt, for example, the American colonel investigating felt positive that the high executives were holding out on him. But nothing would shake their story: they had given him everything. He returned next day with a legal document which he asked them all to sign. It declared they had turned over "all scientific and trade data; and if not, would accept the consequences." Two days later they glumly signed the document, then led he colonel to a cache in a. warehouse will. From a safe tumbled out the secret file on optical instruments, microscopy, aiming devices.
One two-man search team found itself completely stymied. Records that they had-to find had completely disappeared. A rumor indicated they might have been hidden in a mountain. The two scoured 1 the region in a jeep. Nothing. But keeping at it, they stumbled one day onto a small woods road whose entrance was posted:
Achtung! Minen! Gingerly, slowly, they inched their jeep in. Nothing happened. But a concrete dugout sunk in the hill revealed another sign: "Opening Will Cause Explosion."
"We tossed a coin," one member of this search team said later, "and the loser hitched the jeep towrope to the dugout door, held his breath! and stepped on the gas."
There was no explosion. The door-ripped from its hinges. The sought-for secret files were inside.
The German Patent Office put some of its most secret patents down a sixteen-hundred-foot mine. shaft at Heringen, then piled liquid oxygen, in cylinders, on top of them. When the American Joint Intelligence Objectives team found them, it was doubtful that they could be saved. They were legible, but in such bad shape that a trip to the surface would make them disintegrate. Photo equipment and a crew were therefore lowered into the shaft and a complete microfilm record made of the patents there.
Perhaps one of the most exciting searches was also the grimmest. This was the hunt for hidden documents which might reveal that Nazi scientists had frozen human beings to death and then tried to bring them back to life again. Interviewing four Nazi doctors one day in June 1945, at a laboratory of the Institut für Luftfahrtmedizin, at Gut Hirschau, Bavaria, an American medical corps major, Leo Alexander, was struck with the dreadful conviction, despite repeated denials, that this had occurred.
His suspicion were aroused by three things. All the small animal laboratory equipment was carefully preached; all large-animal equipment destroyed. One of the doctors wanted to dissolve his research institute and dismiss his staff.
And none of the scientists could find any data on human beings at all, not even on those rescued from North Sea waters and saved by the new revival techniques. Did this mean that everything of the sort was hidden away with other data which, the doctors didn't want to show?
Wishing to leave the four Germans in a frame of mind not to destroy their records, the American concealed his suspicions, and, for the time being, transferred his search elsewhere.
Chance suddenly played into his hands. The Allied radio one night broadcast a grim tale of the Dachau concentration camp. Researches on death, and treatment of shock, from exposure to cold had been performed on prisoners. The broadcast named the leading experimenter, one Dr. Rascher, and called him a member of the medical staff of the SS.
For Alexander this was a lead. He happened just to have learned that the American Seventh Army had recently captured a vast mass of especially secret SS records. He therefore headed for the Seventh Army. Documents Center to see what was there.
There was more than he anticipated. Even to the complete and final report – Himmler's personal copy, with his green-penciled annotations, all over it – with the names of Rascher and all others involved, and containing all the damning details of the almost unbelievable experiments.
Victims had been immersed naked in ice water until they lost consciousness. All the time elaborate testings were constantly made: rectal, skin, and interior-of-the-stomach temperatures; pulse, blood sugar, blood chlorides, blood count and sedimentation; urine tests; spinal fluid. Appendix 7, Figure 5, showed that seven subjects were chilled to death beyond revival in from fifty-three to one hundred and six minutes.
"This table," Alexander commented in his own report, "is certainly the most laconic confession of seven murders in existence."
It had been with the rest of the documents – in Himmler's private cave in mountain at Hallein. Even though the aide of the mountain had been dynamited down over the cave mouth, the American searchers had found it.
The earliest Joint Intelligence Objectives search teams were followed by others, which were to dig out industrial and scientific secrets in particular. The Technical Industrial Intelligence Committee was one group of these, composed! of three hundred and eighty civilians representing seventeen American industries. Later came the teams of the Office of the Publication Board itself and many mow groups direct from private industry. Of the latter – called, in Germany, Field Intelligence Agencies Technical (FIAT) – there have been over five hundred; of one to ten members each, operating by invitation and under the aegis of the OPB.
Today the search still goes on. The Office of Technical Services has a European staff of four to five hundred. At Hoechst, it has one hundred abstractors who struggle feverishly to keep ahead of the forty OTS document-recording cameras which route to them each month over one hundred thousand feet of microfilm.
What did we find? You'd like some outstanding examples from the war secrets collection?
The head of the communications unit of Technical Industrial Intelligence Branch opened his desk drawer and took out the tiniest vacuum tube I had ever seen. It was about half thumb-size.
Notice it is heavy porcelain – not glass – and thus virtually indestructible. It is a thousand watt – one-tenth the size of similar American tube. Today our manufactured know the secret of making it. . . . And here's something. ...
He pulled some brown, papery-looking ribbon off a spool. It was a quarter-inch wide, with a dull and a shiny side.
"That's Magnetophone tape," he said. "It's plastic, metallized on one side with iron oxide. In Germany that supplanted phonograph recordings. A day's Radio program can be magnetized on one reel. You can demagnetize it, wipe it off and put a new program on at any time. No needle; so absolutely no noise or record wear. An hour-long reel costs fifty cents." He showed me then what had been two of the most closely-guarded, technical secrets of the war: the infra-red device which the Germans invented for seeing at night, and the remarkable diminutive generator which operated it. German cars could drive at any, speed in a total blackout, seeing objects clear as day two hundred meters ahead. Tanks with this device could spot; targets two miles away. As a sniper scope it enabled German riflemen . to pick off a man in total blackness.
There was a sighting tube, and a selenium screen out front. The screen caught the incoming infra-red light, which drove electrons .from the selenium along the tube to another screen which was electrically charged and fluorescent. A visible image appeared on this screen. Its clearness and its accuracy for aiming purposes were phenomenal. Inside the tube, distortion of the stream of electrons by the earth's magnetism was even allowed for!
The diminutive generator – five inches across – stepped up current from an ordinary flashlight battery to 15,000 volts. It had a walnut-sized motor which spun a rotor at 10,000 rpm – so fast that originally it had destroyed all lubricants with the great amount of ozone it produced. The Germans had developed a new grease: chlorinated paraffin oil. The generator then ran 3,000 hours!
A canvas bag on the sniper's back housed the device. His rifle had two triggers. He pressed one for a few seconds to operate the generator and the scope.. Then the other to kill his man in the dark. "That captured secret," my guide declared, "we first used at Okinawa – to the bewilderment of the Japs."
We got, in addition, among these prize secrets, the technique and the machine for making the world's most remarkable electric condenser. Millions of condensers are essential to the radio and radar industry. Our condensers were always made of metal foil. This one is made of .paper, coated with 1/250,000 of an inch of vaporized zinc. Forty per cent smaller, twenty per cent cheaper than our condensers, it is also self-healing. That is, if a breakdown occurs (like a fuse blowing out), the zinc film evaporates, the paper immediately insulates, and the condenser is right again. It keeps on working through multiple breakdowns – at fifty per cent higher voltage than our condensers! To most American radio experts this is magic, double-distilled.
Mica was another thing. None is mined in Germany, so during the war our Signal Corps was mystified. Where was Germany getting it?
One, day certain piece of mica was handed to one of our experts in the U.S. Bureau of Mines for analysis and opinion. "Natural mica," he reported, "and no impurities."
But the mica was synthetic. the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Silicate Research had discovered how to make it and – something which had always eluded scientists – in large sheets.
We know now, thanks to FIAT teams, that ingredients of natural mica were melted in crucibles of carbon capable of taking 2,350 degrees of heat, and then – this was the real secret – cooled in a special way. Complete absence of vibration was the first essential. Then two forces directly perpendicular to each other were applied. One, vertically, was a controlled gradient of temperature in the cooling. At right angles to this, horizontally, was introduced a magnetic field. This forced the formation of the crystals in large laminated sheets on that plane.
"You see this . . ." the head of Communications Unit, TIIB, said to me. It was metal, and looked like a complicated doll's house with the roof off. "It is the chassis or frame, for a radio. To make the same thing, Americans would machine cut, hollow, shape, fit – a dozen different processes. This is done on a press in one operation. It is called the 'cold extrusion' process. We do it with some soft, splattery metals. But by this process the Germans do it with cold steel!
Thousands of parts now made as castings or drop forgings or from malleable iron can now be made this way. The production speed increase is a little matter of one thousand per cent."
This one war secret alone, many American steel men believe, will revolutionize dozens of our metal fabrication industries.
In textiles the war secrets collection has produced so many revelations, that American textile men are a little dizzy. There is a German rayon-weaving machine, discovered a year ago by the American 'Knitting Machine' Team, which increases production in relation to floor space by one hundred and fifty percent. Their "Links-Links" loom produces a ladderless, runproof hosiery. New German needle-making machinery, it is thought, will revolutionize that business in both the United Kingdom and the United States. There is a German method for pulling the wool from sheepskins without injury to hide or fiber, by use of an enzyme. Formerly the "puller" – a trade secret – was made from animal pancreas from American packing houses. During the war the Nazis made it from a mold called aspergil paraciticus, which they seeded in bran. It results not only in better wool, but in ten per cent greater yield.
Another discovery was a way to put a crimp in viscose rayon fibers which gives them the appearance, warmth, wear resistance, and reaction-to-dyes of wool. The secret here, our investigators found, was the addition to the cellulose of twenty-five per cent fish protein.
But of all the industrial secrets, perhaps, the biggest windfall came from the laboratories and plants of the great German cartel, I. G. Farbenindustrie. Never before, it is claimed, was there such a store-house of secret information. It covers liquid and solid fuels, metallurgy, synthetic rubber, textiles, chemicals, plastics. drugs, dyes. One American dye authority declares:
It includes the production know-how and the secret formulas for over fifty thousand dyes. Many of them are faster and better than ours. Many are colors we were never able to make. The American dye industry will be advanced at least ten years.
In matters of food, medicine, and branches of the military art the finds of the search teams were no less impressive. And in aeronautics and guided missiles they proved to be downright alarming. One of the food secrets the Nazis had discovered was a way to sterilize fruit juices without heat. The juice was filtered, then cooled, then carbonated and stored under eight atmospheres of carbon-dioxide pressure. Later the carbon-dioxide was removed, the juice passed through another filter – which, this time, germ-proofed it – and then was bottled. Some thing, perhaps, for American canners to think about.
Milk pasteurization by ultra-violet light has always failed in other countries, but the Germans had found how to do it by using light tubes of great length, and simultaneously how to enrich the milk with vitamin D.
At a plant in Kiel, British searchers of the Joint Intelligence Objectives Committee found that cheese was being made – "good quality Hollander and Tilitser" – by a new method at unheard-of speed. "Eighty minutes from the renneting to the hooping of the curd," report the investigators. The cheese industry around the world had never been able to equal that.
Butter (in a creamery near Hamburg) was being produced by something long wished for by American butter makers: a continuous butter making machine. An invention of dairy equipment manufacturers in Stuttgart, it took up less space than American churns and turned out fifteen hundred pounds an hour. The machine was promptly shipped to this country to be tested by the American Butter Institute.
Among other food innovations was a German way of making yeast in almost limitless quantities. The waste sulfite liquor from the beechwood used to manufacture cellulose was treated with an organism known to bacteriologists as candida arborea at temperatures higher than ever used in yeast manufacture before. The finished product served as both animal and human food. Its caloric value is four times that of lean meat, and it contains twice as much protein.
The Germans also had developed new methods of preserving food by plastics and new, advanced refrigeration techniques. Refrigeration and air-conditioning on German U-boats had become so efficient that the submarines could travel from Germany to the Pacific, operate there for two months, and then return to Germany without having to take on fresh water for the crew. A secret plastics mixture (among its ingredients were polyvinyl acetate, chalk, and talc) was used to coat bread and cheese A loaf fresh from the oven was dipped, dried, redipped, then heated half an hour at 285 degrees. It would be unspoiled and good to eat eight months later.
"As for medical secrets in this collection," one Army-surgeon has remarked, "some of them will save American medicine years of research; some of them are revolutionary – like, for instance, the German technique for treatment after prolonged and usually fatal exposure to cold." This discovery – revealed to us by Major Alexander's search already mentioned – reversed everything medical science thought about the subject. In every one of the dread experiments the subjects were most successfully revived, both temporarily and permanently, by immediate immersion in hot water. In two cases of complete standstill of heart and cessation of respiration, a hot bath at 122 degrees brought both subjects back to life. Before our war with Japan ended, this method was adopted as the treatment for use by all American Air-Sea Rescue Services, and it is generally accepted by medicine today.
German medical researchers had discovered a way to produce synthetic blood plasma. Called capain, it was made on a commercial scale and equaled natural plasma, in results. Another discovery was periston, a substitute for the blood liquid. An oxidation production of adrenalin (adrenichrome) was produced in quantity Successfully only by the Nazis and was used with good results in combating high blood pressure (of which 750,000 persons die annually in the United States). Today we have the secret of manufacture and considerable supply.
Likewise of great importance medically were certain researches by Dr. Boris Rojewsky of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Biophysics at Frankfurt. These were on the ionization of air as related to health. Positively ionized air was discovered to have deleterious effects upon human well-being, and to account for the discomfort and depression felt at times when the barometer is falling. In many persons, it was found, its presence brought on asthma, hay fever, and nervous tension. It raised high blood pressure, sometimes to the danger point. It would bring on the symptoms common in mountain sickness-labored and rapid breathing, dizziness, fatigue, sleepiness.
Negatively ionized air, however, did all the opposite. It was exhilarating, creating a feeling of high spirits and well-being. Mental depression was wiped out by it. In pathological cases it steadied breathing, reduced high blood pressure, was a check on allergies and asthma. The importance of its presence wherever human beings live, work, or recuperate from illness may some day make its production one of the major functions of air conditioning.But of highest significance for the future were the Nazi secrets in aviation and in various types of missiles.
"The V2 rocket, which bombed London," an Army Air Force publication reports, "was just a toy compared to what the Germans had up their sleeve."
When the war ended, we now know, they had 138 types of guided missiles in various stages of production or development, using every known kind of remote control and fuse: radio, radar, wire, continuous wave, acoustics, infra-red, light beams, and magnetics, to name some; and for power, all methods of jet propulsion for either subsonic or supersonic speeds. Jet propulsion had even been applied to helicopter flight. The fuel was piped to combustion chambers at the rotor blade tips, where it exploded, whirling the blades around like a lawn sprinkler or pinwheel. As for rocket propulsion, their A-4 rocket, which was just getting into large scale production when the war ended, was forty-six feet long, weighed over 24,000 pounds, and traveled 230 miles. It rose sixty miles above the earth and had a maximum speed of 3,735 miles an hour – three times that of the earth's rotation at the equator. The secret of its supersonic speed, we know today, lay in its rocket motor which used liquid oxygen and alcohol for fuel. It was either radio controlled or self-guided to its target by gyroscopic means. Since its speed was supersonic, it could not be heard before it struck.
Another German rocket which was coming along was the A-9. This was bigger still – 29,000 pounds – and had wings which gave it a flying range of 3,000 miles. It was manufactured at the famous Peenemünde army experiment station and achieved the unbelievable speed of 5,870 miles an hour.
A long range rocket-motored bomber which, the war documents indicate, was never completed merely because of the war's quick ending, would have been capable of flight from Germany to New York in forty minutes. Pilot-guided from a pressurized cabin, it would have flown at an altitude of 154 miles. Launching was to be by catapult at 500 miles an hour, and the ship would rise to its maximum altitude in as short a time as four minutes. There, fuel exhausted, it would glide through the outer atmosphere, bearing down on its target. With one hundred bombers of this type the Germans hoped to destroy any city on earth in a few days operations.
Little wonder, then, that today Army Air Force experts declare publicly that in rocket power and guided missiles the Nazis were ahead of us by at least ten years.
The Germans even had devices ready which would take care of pilots forced to leave supersonic planes in flight. Normally a pilot who stuck his head out at such speeds would have it shorn off. His parachute on opening would burst in space. To prevent these calamitous happenings an ejector seat had been invented which flung the pilot clear instantaneously. His chute was already burst, that is, made of latticed ribbons which checked his fall only alter the down-drag of his weight began to close its holes.
A Nazi variation of the guided air missile was a torpedo for underwater work which went unerringly to its mark, drawn by the propeller sound of the victim ship from as far away as ten miles. This missile swam thirty feet below the water, at forty miles an hour, and left no wake. When directly under its target, it exploded.
All such revelations naturally raise the question: was Germany so far advanced in air, rocket, and missile research that, given a little more time, she might have won the war? Her war secrets, as now disclosed, would seem to indicate that possibility. And the Deputy Commanding General of Army Air Forces Intelligence, Air Technical Service Command, has told the Society of Aeronautical Engineers within the past few months:
The Germans were preparing rocket surprises for the whole world in general and England in particular which would have, it is believed, changed the course of the war if the invasion had been postponed for so short a time as half a year.
For the release and dissemination of all these one-time secrets the Office of the Publication Board was established by an order of President Truman within ten days after Japan surrendered. The order directed that not only enemy war secrets should be published, but also (with some exceptions) all American secrets, scientific and technical, of all government war boards. (The Office of Scientific Research and Development, the National Research Council, and other such.) And thereby was created what is being termed now the biggest publishing problem a government agency ever had to handle.
For the war secrets, which conventionally used to be counted in scores, will run to three-quarters of a million separate documentary items (two-thirds of them on aeronautics) and will require several years and several hundreds of people to screen and prepare them for wide public use.
Today translators and abstracters of the Office of Technical Services, successor to the OPB, arc processing them at the rate of about a thousand a week. Indexing and cataloguing the part of the collection which will be permanently kept may require more than two millions cards; and at Wright Field the task is so complicated that electric punch-card machine; are to be installed. A whole new glossary of German-English terms has had to be compiled – something like forty thousand words on new technical and scientific items.
With so many documents, it has, of course, been impossible because of time and money limitations to reprint or reproduce more than a very few. To tell the public what is available, therefore, the OTS issues a bibliography weekly. This contains the newest war secrets information as released – with titles, prices of copies currently available or to be made up, and an abstract of contents.
The original document, or the microfilm copy, is then generally sent to the Library of Congress, which is now the greatest depository. To make them more easily accessible to the public, the Library sends copies, when enough are available, to about 125 so-called "depository" libraries throughout the United States.
And is the public doing anything with these one-time war secrets? It is – it is eating them up. As many as twenty thousand orders have been filled in a month, and the order rate is now a thousand items a day. Scientists and engineers declare that the information is "cutting years from the time we would devote to problems already scientifically investigated." And American business men...! A run through the Publication Board's letters file shows the following;
The Bendix Company in South Bend, Indiana, writes for a German patent on the record player changer "with records stacked above the turntable." Pillsbury Mills wants to have what is available on German flour and bread production methods. Kendall Manufacturing Company ("Soapine") wants insect repellent compounds. Pioneer Hi-Bred Corn Company, Iowa, asks about "interrogation of research workers at the agricultural high school at Hohenheim." Pacific Mills requests I. G. Farbenindustrie's water-repellent, crease-resistant finish for spun rayon. The Polaroid Company would like something on "the status of exploitation of photography and optics in Germany." (There are, incidentally, ten to twenty thousand German patents yet to be screened.)
The most insatiable customer is Amtorg, the Soviet Union's foreign trade organization. One of its representatives walked into the Publication Board office with the bibliography-in hand and said, "I want copies of everything." The Russians sent one order in May for $5,594.00 worth – two thousand separate war secrets reports. In general, they buy every report issued. Americans, too, think there is extraordinarily good prospecting in the war secrets lode. Company executives practically park on the OTS's front doorstep, wanting to be first to get hold of a particular report on publication. Some information is so valuable that to get it a single day ahead of a competitor, may be worth thousands of dollars. But the OTS takes elaborate precautions to be sure that no report is ever available to anyone before general public release.
After a certain American aircraft company had ordered a particular captured war document, it was queried as to whether the information therein had made it or saved it any money. The cost of the report had been a few dollars. The company answered: "Yea – at least a hundred thousand dollars."
A research head of another business firm took notes for three hours in the OTS offices one day. "Thanks very much," he said, as he stood to go, "the notes from these documents are worth at least half a million dollars to my company."
And after seeing the complete report the German synthetic fiber industry, one American manufacturer remarked:
This report would be worth twenty million dollars to my company if it could have it exclusively.
Of course you, and anybody else, can now have it, and lots of other once secret information, for a few dollars. All the war secrets, as released, are completely in the public domain.